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中药煎煮与服法问题大全/Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction information worth collecting!

中药煎煮与服法问题大全,值得收藏!

Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction information worth collecting!

现在,中医药正日益受到人们的欢迎,但是,当您把一包包中草药拿回家之后,到底该怎样正确地煎煮和服用呢?本期内容我们来谈谈。

Traditional Chinese Medicine, or mainly Chinese herbal medicine, is getting more and more popular, but how do we decoct and intake it properly? Let's find out.

01. 煎药工具怎么选

How to choose the decocting containers?

一般情况下,中药不能用金属器皿来熬煮,因为金属器皿中所含的各种金属成份会与某些中药的成份产生化学反应,而且其中某些重金属被析出后会被人体吸收,从而影响人体的健康。最好用砂锅、陶罐、搪瓷、不锈钢亦可。

In general, Chinese medicines should not be boiled with metal utensils, because the various metal components contained in a metal vessel will have chemical reactions with the components of certain Chinese medicines, and some of these heavy metals are precipitated and absorbed by the human body, and thereby affect health. It is better to use clay or enamel casserole pots, however, stainless steel pots are acceptable.

中药汤剂的质量与选用的煎药器具有密切的关系。比如,铁锅在煎煮山楂、五倍子等中药时,就会生成不溶于水的鞣酸铁。现在仍是以砂锅为好,因为砂锅的材质稳定不会与药物成分发生化学反应,其传热均匀缓和,这也是自古沿用至今的原因之一。此外,也可选用搪瓷锅,不锈钢锅和玻璃煎器。

The quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine decoction has a lot to do with the containers it is used to cook with. For example, the iron pan will produce water-insoluble iron tannate when boiling Chinese herbs such as hawthorn and gallnut. It is better to use the clay casserole pot, because the material is stable and will not chemically react with the medicinal ingredients, and its heat transfer is even and moderate, which is one of the reasons it has been used since ancient times. Enamel pots, stainless steel pots and glass pots are also suitable.

02. 煎药前是否需要浸泡清洗

Cleaning & Soaking before decocting?

需要!药物在煎煮前一定要浸泡,这是因为来源于植物类的中药多是干燥品,通过加水浸泡可使药材变软,组织细胞膨胀后恢复其天然状态,煎药时易于有效成分浸出。一般以花,叶,茎类为主的药物,浸泡时间为1-1.5小时。以根,种子,根茎,果实类为主的药物浸泡时间为2-3小时。

Yes! The medicine must be soaked before decocting, that's because herbs from plants are mostly dried, so, we need to soak them in water to soften the herbs. When the tissue cells expand, they will return to their natural state, thus will make it easy to extract active ingredients when decocting. The soaking time of herbs with flowers, leaves, or stems is 1-1.5 hours. The soaking time of herbs with root, seed, rhizome or fruit is 2-3 hours.

如果实在觉得草药有泥沙,可以用水迅速漂洗一下,切忌浸洗,以免成分丢失,细小种子类的药材会被冲走流失。

If you think the herb has some dirt, you can rinse it quickly with water, but it must not be soaked and washed to avoid loss of ingredients, and small seeds will be washed away.

03. 煎药需要多少水量

How much water does it need for decocting?

水量浸过药材面2-3cm为佳,轻轻摁住药材,水面刚好漫过手背,一些花草类的药物吸水量较大,在浸泡半小时后水位下降,另加凉水至标准水位,再开始煎煮。

It is preferred that the water level to be 2 ~ 3 cm higher than the face of the herbal medicine. Some herbs with flowers have large water absorption, and the water level drops after soaked for half an hour. Add some cool water to the standard water level and start decocting.

04. 煎药应掌握什么样的火候

What the proper level of heat in decocting?

在药液未沸前宜用急火(大火),沸后改用文火(小火)。煎药温度的高低,中医称之为“火候”,一般习惯为“文火”或“武火”。所谓文火,就是弱火,温度上升缓慢,水份蒸发较慢。所谓武火,就是强火,温度上升快,水份蒸发的也快。如煎药时火候过强,水份蒸发快,会影响有效成分的浸出,容易糊锅。反之,火候弱,煎煮的药效就差。一般是在未沸腾前用武火,至煮沸后再改用文火,保持在微沸状态,可减慢水份的蒸发,这样有利于有效成分的煎出。

Use strong heat before the decoction is boiling, use gentle heat after boiling.

In Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, the temperature levels of decocting is called "degree of heating”, and it is generally called "Gentle heat" or "High heat ". With “gentle heat”, the temperature rises slowly, and the water evaporates slowly. With “high heat”, the temperature rises quickly and the water evaporates quickly. If the heat is too strong, the water will evaporate quickly, and it will affect the leaching of active ingredients, and it's easy to stick the pot. Conversely, when the heat is weak, the effect of decocting is poor.

05. 煎药应需要多长时间

How long should it take for decocting?

不同的药,煎煮时间各不相同。It depends.

  • 一般药物,头煎煮沸后,再煎20—30分钟,二煎煮沸后,再煎15-20分钟。

  • General herbal medicines, decoct for 20 to 30 minutes after boiling for the first time, and decoct 15 to 20 minutes after boiling for the second time.

  • 质地较轻或含芳香性成分较多,如解表、芳香化湿、行气等类药物,煎煮时间应适当缩短,头煎煮沸后再煎10-15分钟,二煎煮沸后5-10分钟即可。

  • Herbal medicines with light texture or are rich in aromatic components, such as medicines for relieving heat, removing dampness with aromatics, promoting the circulation of qi and so on, their decocting time should be shorter, decoct it 10 to 15 minutes after boiling for the first time, and decoct 5 to 10 minutes after boiling for the second time.

  • 补虚药、矿物药及根茎类等质地厚重坚实、不易挥发的药,则应延长煎煮时间。头煎煮沸后,再煎40-50分钟;二煎三煎,乃至四煎沸后,再煎30-40分钟即可。煎煮时间均以药液煮沸后计算。

  • Herbal medicines which are thick, solid, and nonvolatile, such as tonics, mineral medicine and medicines with roots, their decocting time should be extended. Decoct it for 40 to 50 minutes after boiling for the first time, and decoct 30 to 40 minutes after boiling for the second time, third time, or even the fourth time. The decocting time should be calculated after boiling.

06. 可以煎煮多少次

How many times can you decoct?

中药汤剂每煎煮1次时,有效成分的提取率约为45%,也就是说中药汤剂煎煮3次后,已提取有效成分的90%左右,如果药物只煎煮1-2次,则有效成分总损失量为30%-55%,补益药就更多,故提倡煎煮2次为佳。

The extraction rate of active ingredients is about 45% for each decocting of Chinese medicine. That is to say, after 3 times of decocting, about 90% of the active ingredients have been extracted. If the medicine is only decocted for 1-2 times, the total loss of active components is 30%-55%, tonics are even more. Therefore, it is better to decoct for 2 times.

07. 煎煮后如何服用

How to intake the decoction?

根据病情需要,选择服药的温度。

温服:汤剂大多需温服。特别是一些对胃肠道有刺激作用的药物。

冷服:即将煎好的中药汤剂放凉后服用。一般来说,寒剂宜冷服,适用于热证。

热服:将煎好的中药汤剂趁热服下。一般而言,热剂宜热服,适用于寒证。比如外感风寒时一定要热服,服后盖好衣被,吃热粥,助出汗,这样才能更好地发挥药效。

Temperature of taking the decoction: it depends on the need of the disease.Take when it is warm: the decoction is too much and need to be taken when it is warm, especially some medicines that will have stimulating effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Take when it is cool: take the decoction after cooling down. Generally, cold prescription is better to take when it is cool. It is suitable for heat syndrome.

服药剂量:具体根据医嘱病情需要,有的是分次服用,有的是顿服(一次性服用)。

Take when it is hot: Take the decoction while it is hot. In general, hot prescription is better to take when it is hot. It is suitable for cold syndrome. For example, it must be taken when the decoction is hot when you are catching cold, cover your coat after taking, and eat hot porridge for sweating. In this way, the medicine’s effect can work better. Dosage. It depends on to the doctor's orders and the need of the disease. Some are taken separately, some are taken once.

08. 服药时间

Time to take the medicine.

汤剂一般每天一剂,分早晚二次服用。至于饭前还是饭后服则主要决定于病变部位和性质:一般来讲,病在胸隔以上的(心、肺),如咽痛、感冒、头痛、眩晕等应在饭后服用。如病在胸腹以下,如胃、肝、肾等疾患,则要饭前服用,某些对胃肠有刺激性的药物要在饭后服用,滋补药要空腹服用,安神催眠药应在睡前服用,特殊方剂应遵医嘱。

The decoction is generally taken one dose daily. Take it twice each in morning and evening. Whether to take the medicine before or after meal, it mainly depends on the nature of the disease: generally, if the disease happens above the chest (heart, lung), such as sore throat, cold, headache, vertigo, etc., should take the medicine after meal. If the disease happens below the chest, such as diseases of stomach, liver and kidney, the medicine should be taken before meal. Some medicines that will have stimulating effects on the gastrointestinal tract should be taken after meal. Take tonic medicine on an empty stomach. Take the tranquilizer before bed. Special prescription should follow doctor's advice.

09. 服中药要忌口吗

Foods to avoid when taking Traditional Chinese Medicine.

为了保障中药的疗效使其更好的发挥治疗作用,服用中药时是需要对一些食物忌口的,通常应该注意的有以下几点:

To guarantee the effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and make the treating effect better, you need to avoid some foods when taking Chinese medicine and you should usually pay attention to the following points:

1. 服中药时不要喝浓茶。因为茶叶里含有鞣酸,浓茶里含的鞣酸更多,与中药同服时会影响人体对中药中有效成分的吸收,减低疗效。

Don't drink strong tea when taking Chinese medicine. Because tea contains tannic acid, Strong tea contains more tannic acid. When you take with Traditional Chinese Medicine, it will affect the absorbtion the effective components of Chinese medicine, and reduce the treatment effect.

2. 服用中药时不宜吃萝卜(服理气化痰药除外)。因萝卜有消食、破气等功效,特别是服用人参等滋补类中药时,吃萝卜会降低补药的效果使其失去补益的作用而达不到治疗目的。

Don't eat radish when taking Chinese medicine (except for phlegm medicine). Because radish has the effect of digestion, breaking Qi and so on, Especially when taking nourishing Chinese medicine such as ginseng and so on. Eating radish will reduce the effect of tonic medicine and loss the effect of tonifying, and can not achieve the goal of treatment.

3. 患有消化道疾病,如肝炎、慢性胃肠炎患者服用健脾、温胃和胃药时,禁服大蒜。大蒜中含有蒜素能刺激胃肠粘膜,使粘膜充血,所服的中药就不能有效的发挥其治疗作用。

Patients with digestive tract disease, such as hepatitis, chronic gastroenteritis patients must not eat garlic when taking medicines for tonifying spleen and warming stomach. Garlic contains allicin that will stimulate the gastrointestinal mucosa, and cause congestion, making the taken Chinese medicine cannot work effectively.

4. 服中药时不能吃辣椒,特别是热性病症。服清热凉血或滋阴降火药时更不宜吃辣椒,辣椒能使药效降低,使治疗无效或疗效减弱。

Don’t eat pepper when taking Chinese medicine, especially when you are suffering from body heat syndrome. Don’t eat pepper when taking medicine for clearing heat and cooling blood, or nourishing yin and removing body heat. Pepper will reduce the effect of the medicine, and make the treatment ineffective or reduce the effect.

5. 服中药煎剂及丸药时,宜忌生、冷、油腻。因为生、冷类食物刺激胃肠,影响胃肠对药物的吸收,油腻食物不易消化和吸收,而且油腻食物与药物混合更能阻碍胃肠对药物有效成分的吸收,从而降低疗效。

When you are taking Chinese medicine decoction and pills, do avoid eating spicy, cold, greasy foods. As raw, cold food will stimulate the stomach, and affect the absorption of medicine. Greasy food is hard to be digested and absorbed, and the mixture of greasy food and medicine will block the gastrointestinal absorption of active ingredients, which could reduce the effect of the treatment.

此外,患有疮、皮肤病者忌食咸水鱼、虾、蟹及羊肉、猪肉等食物;水肿病人忌食食盐;肝炎病人忌食辛、辣、油腻;服荆芥时忌服鱼、虾、蟹;服天冬时忌服鲤鱼;服白术时忌服大蒜等。

In addition, those suffering from sores and skin diseases should not eat saltwater fish, shrimp, crabs, mutton, and pork. Edema patients should avoid eating salt. Hepatitis patients should avoid eating spicy, and greasy food. Don’t eat fish, shrimp and crab when taking herba schizeneptae. Don't eat carp when taking asparagus. Don't eat garlic when taking white atractylodes rhizome.

 

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